The Mom Plant of the Goddess – Hashish

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CANNABIS CULTURE – Like us, cannabis happens in each female and male varieties a differentiation which marks increased types of each botanical and animal species .  “Propagation of the feminine species… is the whole concern of the grower within the narcotic energy of the plant.  It’s thus a type of blissful coincidence that the subjective results of cannabis and the care and a focus wanted to provide a very good resin pressure each conspire and intensify values which can be oriented towards honoring and preserving the female.”(McKenna 1992).  With such a view in thoughts it’s not so stunning to seek out that numerous devotees have usually come to notice one thing female about marijuana, or Mary Jane, and this goes again to historical occasions.  Virtually two millennia in the past Chinese language Taoist sages remarked upon this distinction, defining that it was the yin, (female reverse to the male yang) that contained the crops magical and euphoric properties.

Curiously cannabis has been recognized with numerous historical Goddesses. In her groundbreaking historic research of cannabis, the Polish anthropologist Sula Benet, recognized now for her identification of the traditional Hebrew time period ‘Kaneh bosm’ with the plant cannabis,   wrote:

 Considering the matriarchal factor of Semitic tradition, one is led to consider that Asia Minor was the unique level of growth for each the society primarily based on the matriarchal circle and the mass use of cannabis. (Benetowa,[Benet], 1936)

The Matriarchal Circle, refers back to the age of the Goddess, and what Benet is figuring out is her perception that it was amongst the Close to Japanese worshipers of the goddess that the cultic use of cannabis might have originated.

The Matriarchal idea holds that as humanity made the transition from a nomadic hunter-gatherer, right into a pastoral agriculturist, a lot of the sooner give attention to animal totems (humanities oldest spiritual symbols which had been used to symbolically entice sport), later turned centered on the picture of the Nice Goddess, Mom Earth and the correct worship of her in order that the earth would naked its fruits. Because the creating thoughts of humanity struggled to understand the patterns of order within the seemingly chaotic world round them, they perceived that each one new life was given beginning by the female. “Within the presence of beginning, they had been uncertain not merely in regards to the father’s id however about his existence. Intercourse relations occurred with out being pregnant; why shouldn’t being pregnant happen with out intercourse relations? Girl alone was the seen life bestower.”(Ashe 1976).

In paleolithic occasions it was pure for a girl to be pregnant, and there was no explicit motive to surprise the way it took place…. Man’s function in procreation was not one which may very well be simply deduced from the sample of on a regular basis paeolithic life, when intercourse was frequent and being pregnant commonplace, when the one calendar was the moon, and 9 months in relation to life expectancy virtually so long as two years in the present day…. there may be nothing in all of the lengthy millennia of the paleolithic period to show that…[man]knew about… [his role in procreation]”.(Tannahill 1982)

As  Erich Neumann wrote in The Nice Mom: An Evaluation of the Archetype:

“Within the early scenario of human tradition, the group psyche was dominant.  A relation of participation mystique prevailed between the person and his group and its surroundings, notably the world of crops and animals…For a lot of good causes, the fundamental matriarchal view noticed no relation between the sexual act and the bearing of youngsters.  Being pregnant and sexuality had been disassociated each within the inside and outward expertise of girl.  This can be readily understood after we take into account that these early societies had been characterised by a promiscuous intercourse life that started far earlier than sexual maturity…Within the primordial section due to this fact, the girl at all times conceived by an extrahuman, transpersonal energy….”(Neumann 19551974)

This primeval idea of the feminine as the only creatrix of life gave rise to the cult of the Nice Mom and thus lots of the most historical surviving spiritual artifacts are pictures of the feminine type. Her millennia of worship and veneration lasted nicely into Biblical occasions.

Proof that worship of divinity in its female side had a spot of significance in Canaan and Syria is given by the quite a few small feminine statuettes with sexual traits emphasised which have been discovered by archaeologists… it’s clear that the worship of the goddess matches in nicely with the Canaanite fertility cult, and the variety of these collectible figurines attest to the excessive measure of recognition which she loved.”(Ringgren 1973)

  Within the majority of hunter-gatherer societies Girls usually balanced the males provide of sport with there collected harvest from the encircling wilderness.   It’s believed that girls, who acted because the gatherers within the early nomadic clan, had been the primary to acknowledge how the crops they collected propagated themselves, and this led to the event of agriculture. “For the reason that cultivation of crops was first undertaken by ladies, their significance within the social construction drastically elevated, which, in flip, gave rise to a cult of Mom Earth, in addition to to a mythology of the moon conceived as feminine.”(Patai 1967) Agriculture, and an ample harvest, led to extra settled communities, and in gentle of this, it’s not in any respect stunning to seek out that many of the earliest civilizations had been each matriarchally structured and agriculturally primarily based, i.e., Mohenjo-Daro, the place proof of historical cannabis material has been recovered

Hashish’s relationship with issues female probably goes again to its primordial discovery within the hunter gatherer interval of pre-history. Present archeological proof locations using hemp fibres way back to 25,000 years in the past.

These early agriculturally primarily based communities had a relationship and data of the pure world round them that was probably corresponding to that of the few un-Christianized aboriginal communities which have managed to outlive all the way down to our modern-day– teams which have such an intense data of the properties of the crops round them that it astyounds many an acedemically educated botanist and chemist.  As Anthropologist Richard Rudgley has commented on the early matriarchal scenario;

“Whereas animal protiens are extremely prized, the majority of the staples are normally the results of feminine labor.  This division of labor might recommend that in prehistoric time’s ladies’s function vis-a-vis crops weren’t restricted to the culinary and even medical spheres, however prolonged into the invention of psychoactive crops (this has a distant echo within the feminine dominated European witchcraft custom…).  Gatherers have an extreemely detailed data of their land and its pure assets, and having thought of the technical and mental achievements of hunter-gatherer communities previous and current we shouldn’t be stunned that they had been capable of determine, gather and course of quite a lot of species…”(Rudgley 1993)

In sinc with the creating soical energy and magic of the females, had been lots of the attributes aquired by the goddesses who represented her;

“As goddess of the food-giving crops, herbs, and fruits, she numinously transforms these primary parts into intoxications and poisons.  It’s fairly evident that the preperation and storage of meals taught girl the method of fermentation and the manufacture of intoxicants, and that, as a gatherer and later preparer of herbs, crops, and fruits, she was the inventor and gaurdian of the primary therapeutic potions, medicines, and poisons…. The goddess is due to this fact not solely the queen of the enobled fruit of the soil but additionally of the spirit matter of transformation that’s emodied in… wine [and different intoxicants]….”

“Within the pile dwellings of the Stone Age we already discover proof of the rising of poppies, the everyday plant of the Cretan Goddess, of Demeter, Ceres and Spes…. The efficacy of the poppy as a magic potion…. is a secret of the girl… (Neumann 19551974)

The Minoan Poppy Goddess

Together with her primordial affiliation with the magical poppy, it’s not so suprising to seek out the Goddess related with different  sacred crops as nicely. As famous the event of agriculture first passed off durring what is called the matriarchal interval of human tradition when the picture of the mom Goddess was probably the most widespread and customary motif.  Carl Sagan has instructed that cannabis was humanities first agriculral crop (196??) and extra just lately entheogen and aphrodisiac researcher Christian Ratsch has famous; “No different plant has been with people so long as hemp.  It’s most definitely one among humanity’s oldest cultural objects”(Ratsch 1997).  With the views of such eminent students in thoughts together with the historicaly recognized recognition of the goddess at this similar time, it solely appears conclusive that there needed to have been a deep rooted relationship between the traditional hemp crop and the Nice mom worshipped by the individuals who initially planted it.  A speculation which is strengthened immesly with a glance via the historic document.

  “Allow us to take a look at the components which may have contributed to the beginning of mass use of cannabis within the matriarchal circle. One vital issue is that in getting ready fibre from plant and in the course of the harvest the robust odor intoxicate the employees . In response to historical customs nonetheless surviving in trendy occasions, all work involving hemp is finished in mass.  Since antiquity the hemp harvest has been thought of a vacation, particularly for the younger individuals. In lots of nations the harvest is a kind of reunion to which visitors include or with out masks and provides all kinds of presents to the employees. Right here we see an apparent hyperlink with the masculine secret societies within the matriarchal circle in which there’s mass use of cannabis”.–‘Tracing one Phrase By way of Totally different Languages’, Sara Benetowa, (1936), in , The E book of Grass, Andrews,1967.

Benet talks us again to a time within the historical Outdated World, when probably the most prevailing artifacts recovered had been numerous artifacts regarding the worship of the Nice Goddess. A idea postulated by some anthropologists, that’s fostered by these artifacts, means that in Palaeolithic, Mesolithic eras and/or Neolithic Europe and Western Asia and North Africa, a singular, monotheistic feminine deity was worshipped previous to the event of the polytheistic pagan religions of the Bronze Age and Iron Age.

Variations of the Nice Goddess collectible figurines which were recovered from numerous archeological websites.

 

 Seated Mom Goddess of Çatal Höyük: (the top is a restoration), Museum of Anatolian Civilizations. stays of Hemp material have been recovered from this similar historical web site. 

In gentle of this, it’s attention-grabbing to notice, that cannabis has via the millennia been related with numerous Goddesses round Mom Earth.

China’s Ma Ku

Ma Ku, actually, ‘Hemp Girl’, was a Taoist ‘Immortal’, who had robust connections with the ‘elixir of life,’ bringing again to thoughts that cannabis was deemed one of many Superior Elixirs of Immortality by Shen Nung millennia previous to this and it might appeared to have loved this popularity within the intervening centuries. “…Taoist dreamed of ascending to heaven after so a few years of asceticism and by taking an elixir of life concocted from numerous uncommon herbs” (Suzuki, 1961).

One thing would possibly… be gained by pursuing the mythological reference to the hemp Damsel, Ma Ku, goddess of the slopes of Thai Shan, the place the plant was alleged to be gathered on the seventh day of the seventh month, a day of séance and banquets in Taoist communities. (Needham, 1974)

In relation, the Taoist thinker Wang Yuan (146-168 CE), was mentioned to have invited Ma Ku to a feast on the cannabis gathering day of the “seventh day of the seventh month” the place “The servings had been piled up on gold platters and in jade cups with out restrict. There have been uncommon delicacies, a lot of them produced from flowers and fruits, and their perfume permeated the air in and out.” Wang served the visitors a robust liquor from “the celestial kitchens,” and warned that it was “unfit for ingesting by strange individuals.”  In response to the traditional account, even after diluting the liquor with water, everybody turned intoxicated and desired extra. It’s believed by some sources that the elixir referred to was a particular wine produced from cannabis. A Chinese language poem about Ma ku by Ts’ao T’ang clearly brings to thoughts the fantastic thing about budding cannabis:

Blue Lad transmits the phrase, requiring them to come back again:

His report tells that Miss Hemp’s ‘jade stamens’ have opened.

The watchet [Blue-grey] Sea has turnd to mud –

All different affairs could also be disregarded:

They mount dragon and crane and are available to watch the flowers.

The ‘Blue Lad’ is a Taoist deity, and the poem describes him summoning all of the fairies and immortals to witness the blossoming of Ma Ku’s flowers. “Apparently the T’ang literati argued in regards to the id of this ‘jade stamen-and-pistil’ flower suggesting that the reality was understood solely by a couple of, who knew the right way to domesticate hemp flowers until (in line with one description) they sported ‘whiskers like threads of ice, with golden grain sewn on high’” (Bey, et al., 2004). Conceivably, this might point out that the Taoist gardeners new the key of separating the male from feminine cannabis crops, to provide resinous seedless cannabis often called sinsemillia, a cultivation method usually assumed to have been developed a lot later.

 

Kali Weed

Though Shiva is the Lord of Bhang, cannabis seems in providing to numerous different deities comparable to these devoted to Shiva’s consort Kali, Goddess of Life and Loss of life. Kali’s cannabis mantra is, “Om, Hrim Ambrosia, that springeth forth from ambrosia, Thou shalt showerest ambrosia, draw ambrosia for me many times.  Deliver Kalika inside my management. Give success; Svaha” (Avalon, 1913). In Tantric rites, cannabis retained its historical Vedic epithet of ‘Vijaya’ (Victory). As Arthur Avalon (aka, Sir John Woodroffe) defined: “Vijaya, (victory) utilized in ceremonies to Kali: That’s the narcotic Bhang (hemp)… utilized in all ceremonies” (Avalon, 1913).

In medieval India and Tibet, sorcerers in the hunt for magic powers glorified using a marijuana drink (bhang)… in Tantric intercourse ceremonies derived from the traditional soma cult. A circle of bare women and men is conducting an experiment of the central nervous system. They consecrate a bowl of bhang to Kali, goddess of terror and delight. Because the bhang begins to take impact, the worshippers mentally arouse the serpent on the base of the backbone, sending waves of vitality up tothe cortex. (Aldrich, 1978)

Hashish additionally performed an vital function within the Durga Puja, the annual Hindu six day pageant that celebrates worship of the Hindu goddess Durga. Up till the 19th century, on the shut of the Durga Puja, it was customary to drink bowls of bhang and to supply them to others. Because the Indian Hemp Medicine Fee Report recorded:

The customized of providing an infusion of the leaves of the hemp plant to each visitor and member of the household on the… final day of the Durga Puja, is widespread in Bengal, and should virtually be mentioned to be common. It’s alluded to by lots of the witnesses who seek advice from its use on this event in addition to on different days of the Durga Puja pageant. However, whereas there will be little doubt as to the existence of the customized, there may be appreciable divergence of opinion as to the true nature of it. The customized itself is a straightforward one. On the final day of this nice pageant the male family members go forth to consign the picture to the waters and on their return the entire household with their visitors trade greetings and embrace each other. Throughout this rejoicing a cup containing an infusion of the leaves of the hemp plant is handed spherical, and all are anticipated to partake thereof, or at the very least to position it to the lips in token of acceptance. Sweetmeats containing hemp are additionally distributed. Opinion is sort of equally divided as as to if the customized is a mere social observance, or whether or not it’s an important a part of the spiritual ceremonial of the pageant. There may be distinction whether or not there may be any injunction within the opinion among the many witnesses as to Shastras rendering compulsory the consumption of hemp; however Tantric spiritual works sanction the use, and the customized no matter be its origin might now be mentioned from immemorial utilization to be regarded by many individuals as a part of their spiritual observances. From the proof of the witnesses it might seem that there is no such thing as a particular route within the Shastras of the style wherein the drug ought to be used however from the references quoted it might seem that the use alluded to is authority that of bhang in the type of an infusion. (IHDCR, 1894)

Freya

It has been mentioned that agriculture led to tradition and maybe in our cultivation of cannabis, the plant has in a roundabout way cultivated humanity? Archaeological proof from 3,500 BC offers clear proof that European man was utilizing cannabis as an incense and inebriant very early on.

Hemp seeds, which may very well be recognized as these of Hashish sativa, had been recovered within the Neolithic band ceramic… layers of Eisenbergin Thuringia, Germany… The layers had been dated to round 5500 b.c.e. Hemp seeds have additionally been discovered within the excavations of different, considerably more moderen Neolithic layers, comparable to these in… Switzerland,…  Austria,…  and… Romania… These finds date from a interval of peaceable, horticultural, pre-Indo-European cultures who honored the Nice Goddess. The linear band ceramics that lend their title to this Stone Age cultural epoch are adorned with graphics representing the archetypical motifs and patterns of hallucinatory or psychedelic themes… (Ratsch, 2005)

Referring to German authorities, Christian Ratsch states that in historical Germanic tradition cannabis was utilized in honour of the Goddess Freya as each a ritual inebriant and an aphrodisiac and that the harvesting of the plant was related with an erotic excessive pageant. “Hemp, sacred to her, was used to advertise want, fertility and well being in people” (Ratsch, 2001). It was believed that Freya lived as a fertile power within the plant’s female flowers and by ingesting them one turned influenced by this divine power” (Ratsch 2001, 2005). This view is supported by the archaeological discovery of cannabis in a pre-historic German tomb.

Remnants of hemp relationship from prehistoric occasions had been found in 1896 in northern Europe when the German archaeologist, Hermann Busse opened a tomb containing a funerary urn at Wilmersdorf (Brandenburg). The vessel in query contained sand wherein had been blended remnants of crops. It dated from the fifth century BC. The botanist, Ludwig Wittmaack (1839-1929), was capable of finding amongst this plant particles fragments of the seed and pericarp of Hashish sativa L.  On the session of the Berlin Society for Anthropology, Ethnology and Prehistory on Might 15, 1897, Busse offered a report on his discovery and drew the conclusion that hemp had already been recognized in northern Europe in prehistoric occasions… one should agree with C. Hartwich that hemp was already employed in northern Europe on the similar time that it was by the Chinese language and the Scythians for meals and pleasure. (Reininger, 1941)

Curiously the Scythian Goddess selected as her weapon, the Scythe, a software used within the harvesting of cannabis and named after the tradition from which it’s thought to have originated, the Scythians.

The one deity proven in Scythian artwork was the Nice goddess whom the Greeks known as Artemis, or Hestia or Gaea (The Earth)…Scythians had been ruled by priestess-queens, normally buried alone in richly furnished Kurgans (queen graves)…The moon-sickle utilized in legendary castrations of god was a Scythian weapon. A protracted dealt with type due to this fact got here to be known as a scythe, and was assigned to the Grim Reaper, who was initially Rhea Kronia within the guise of Mom Time, or Loss of life – the Earth who devoured her personal youngsters. Scythian ladies apparently used such weapons in battle in addition to spiritual ceremonies and agriculture.  (Walker, 1986)

Walker’s feedback concerning using the scythe and agriculture, will be notably utilized to the Scythians favourite and most versatile crop, cannabis hemp, because the lengthy dealt with scythe with its curved blade is especially designed for harvesting hemp, enabling the harvester to chop the hemp alongside the soil line thus preserving its lengthy fibrous stalks. In relation to the Scythian Goddess, it’s attention-grabbing to notice that together with the cannabis burning braziers discovered Pazyryk, two extraordinary rugs had been additionally discovered within the frozen Scythian tomb. One rug had a border frieze with a repeated composition of a horseman approaching the Nice Goddess Tabiti-Hestia, the patroness of fireside and beasts, who holds the ‘Tree of Life’  in a single hand and raises the opposite hand in welcome. Professors Schultes and Hoffman seek advice from this carpet in a chapter on cannabis (Schultes & Hoffman, 1979). “Just like the Aryans… who composed the Rig Veda, the Scythians might have been grinding the plant and throwing it into their mead and presumably buying and selling it to the Aryans to the south of them within the Indus Valley” (Copeland, 2007).

A Horseman approaches the Nice Goddess who holds the tree of life in a single hand, on the frieze of a Scythian carpet, carpets comparable to these had been usually cloaked over a teepee like construction and used as a scorching field over a brazier of smouldering cannabis flowers.

The Scythian Queen

With the robust parts of Goddess worship within the Scythian tradition, it’s not stunning to discover a matriarchal hierarchy as nicely, and we all know from surviving artefacts that Scythian ladies took highly effective management roles within the tribe.  As nicely “Each women and men in all probability smoked [hemp], since we discovered two units of equipment for smoking with the burial of a person and a lady” (Rudenko, 1970).  Certainly later finds of cannabis seeds on the web site of a “Scythian Queen” present proof of this.

In 1993, a feminine Scythian mummy was found. The China Every day reported of the discover “The mother was buried alongside six horses in full harness, dishes, a mirror, a brush, and even a small pot of cannabis to assist her journey into the afterlife.” A 1995 episode of The Nationwide Geographic Explorer, The Frozen Siberian Tombs, profiled a dig centered round a just lately found Kurgan, and this system televised things like an over 2,000 yr outdated hemp shirt, woven as high-quality as silk; A superbly embroidered and adorned bag, used for holding cannabis; And an unique Persian rug, testifying to vast historical commerce routes.  This discover was within the Altai Mountains of Siberia, an space the place the borders of Russia, China, Mongolia and Kazakhstan converge. The New York Occasions story on the discover reported; `

…[S]he was elegantly specified by a white silk shirt, purple skirt and white stockings. She had been buried in a hollowed tree trunk alongside horse harnesses, a mirror, dishes and a small container of cannabis, which archaeologists consider was smoked for pleasure and utilized in pagan rituals. ….That, and the intricate tattoos on her left arm, led the archaeologists who discovered her to conclude that she was a Scythian princess and a priestess. (Stanley, 1994)

Hashish was not solely utilized by the Scythians for rest and ceremonies for the lifeless.  These historical nomads had a category of Shaman-magicians, the Enaries, historical transvestites, who uttered prophecies in excessive pitched voices whereas twisting fibers of their fingers a way which they held was taught to them by Aphrodite. This at first sounds, weird, however truly, homosexuality was a quite common trait in shamans of tribal peoples, worldwide, who believed that these individuals, who had traits of each sexes, had been in some way additionally dwelling in each worlds, and will journey between the 2. It has been recorded that the Scythians believed that the female traits of the shamans had been punishment from the Nice goddess for desecrating her shrine at Ashkelon. The messages “channeled” by these historical diviners was taken as authoritative recommendation by the chieftains and the tribe.  On this sense, the Shamans acted because the conscience or thoughts of the entire group.

Cybelle’s cannophori

One other potential overseas conduit for Greek cannabis use might come from the cult of Cybelle. Initially a Phrygrian and Hittite Goddess, Cybelle’s worship is believed to return to Neolithic occasions in Anatolia, the place she probably originated as a deification of Mom Earth. Her Roman equal was ‘Magna Mater,’ or ‘Nice Mom’. Cybelle’s cult was popularized across the 5th century BC in Greece, the place she was related to the later cult of Dionysus, whom she was mentioned to have each initiated and cured of Hera’s insanity. Cybelle later turned a life-death-rebirth deity via the connection along with her son/consort Attis.

Cybelle’s authentic Phrygian monks, often called Gallus, or Galli, assumed ladies’s clothes after a sacrificial castration, the gender switch being a type of worship of the Goddess by identification. “We all know that the Phrygian tribes… in the course of the 1st millennium BCE had been weavers of hemp (and presumably imbibers of intoxicating hemp preparations)” (Merlin, 1973). References to some Gallibeing woke up to this type of worship, after ingesting a sure type of “herb rising alongside the banks of the Maeander River” (Conner 1993), in addition to acknowledged use of mysterious sacraments amongst the cult, point out clearly that they had been practising the widespread trait of thriller religions of the time – ingestion of entheogenic sacraments. Referring to the visionary dream which was mentioned to awaken the Gallus to their new identification with the Goddess, Randy P. Conner commented; “It’s attainable to see the… ingesting or consuming of particular substances as a fated incidence that triggered the attention of 1’s future.  Such experiences had been mentioned to trigger a person to expertise sophrene, to ‘get well one’s senses’” (Conner 1993).

Latest finds have established that Cybelle was worshipped among the many Thracian tribes (Camphausen 1991), who as mentioned had been well-known for utilizing cannabis to achieve mystic states, particularly amongst their very own transvestite shamans. Curiously, sure male functionaries of Cybelle and Attis’ cult had been often called cannophori, which has normally been translated as “reed-bearers”, however linguistically, with “canno”, this will have implications of “cannabis-bearers” as an alternative. “The Latin title of cannabis, maybe rectius cannevas, because the Italian title is cannevacchio (our English canvass was produced from it) would join it with…the cannephoroi…” (Bell, 1852)

Archaeological proof reveals the Phrygian tradition from which the faith arose used hemp (Abel 1980).  

 

Hashish and Aphrodite

Dr. David Hillman has instructed that “the first element of rituals carried out by archaic, classical and Hellenistic faculties of priestesses related to temples of Dionysus and Aphrodite. From the earliest associations of oracular priesthoods in Cyprus, marijuana was an integral element of cult sacrifices”.

“The temples of Aphrodite-Urania within the Japanese Mediterranean had been the earliest Greek localities the place incense containing Hashish was burned always in the course of the day and night time. Travellers and devotees to the triune divinities of Dionysus, Aphrodite and the Muses, indulged in fumigations of marijuana meant to induce theurgic operations. Cult followers inhaled the fumes of burning marijuana with a view to help within the “motivation of statues” and the manufacturing of oracular visions. (Hillman, 2012)

In his 2012 lecture at ‘Hashish Roots: The Hidden Historical past of Marijuana’  , titled ‘Satisfying the Flame of Want with Marijuana: Priestesses, Medicine, and the Cycle of Life‘ Hillman claims that:

Priestesses related to temples of Aphrodite-Urania shaped personal associations that educated younger ladies in using medication to change menstruation and using poisons as a way of defending and imposing oracular pronouncement. These faculties date again to the primary associations of oracular priestesses who served the temples of Black Evening, a god whose cult was related to the administration of archaic justice underneath the auspices of the Erinyes, Nemesis and Dike. These faculties referred to their members as “wolves” and the cult deity as the nice “She-Wolf.”

Marijuana was utilized by members of the “wolves” as a medicine and aphrodisiac. As a matter of truth, Hashish seems to have been one of many earliest aphrodisiacs utilized in Greece. Dr. Hillman will present that using marijuana was related to a particular colloquial drug vocabulary that developed in Greece and Rome. Marijuana was referred to initially as “star” and was the drug accountable for inducing “the quenching of the flame,” a cult time period used to precise the achievement of feminine sexual satisfaction by priestesses of Aphrodite concerned in each oracular pronouncements and temple prostitution. (Hillman, 2012)

 

Hera’s Garlands of Asterion 

Within the first century CE, Dioscorides, referred to numerous names that had been utilized to cannabis, notably asterion which implies “little star”, and is expounded to the form of the leaves spreading out from the centre. Below the title “asterion” cannabis was used as an providing to the Goddess Hera, spouse of Zeus. Pausanias’ Description of Greece E book 2. 17.2, reads: “On its banks grows a plant, which additionally known as asterion. They provide the plant itself to Hera, and from its leaves weave her garlands.”

“I contend that the correct altered state of consciousness might have generated via using psychotropic compounds (talked about by Iamblichus as one technique for inducing ecstasy). I discover proof of using such sacred medicines by the oracular priestesses of Delphi and the priestesses of Hera at Argos, the place asterion, which is cannabis, was a plant related to the mysteries.”

Marguerite Rigoglioso, ‘Matriarchal Spirituality and Virgin Delivery’, Matriarchal Politics Convention, Might 2011 St Gallen, Switzerland

in her e book The Cult of Divine Delivery in Historical Greece,  Dr Marguerite Rigoglioso has instructed that cannabis underneath the title asterion was in use within the Greek Cult of Hera, spouse of Zeaus and supreme Goddess of the Greek pantheon, .

The concept the priestess of Hera might have used asterion… might discover help within the identification between the plant title asterion and the unique title of Delos, Asteria. …the entheogen cannabis… might have facilitated priestesses’ “astral” trance journeys…

Pausanias (2. 17.1-7) supplies an outline of the environs of Argive Heraion and its cult practices that additional factors to priestesses’ intimate involvement with the mysteries related to the goddess…. above the Argive Heraion flowed the river Asterion, on whose banks grew the asterion plant. The vines and leaves had been woven into garlands for the statue of Hera, and the plant was made as an providing to her…. The crops use of an providing to the goddess suggests it was thought of notably sacred: I contend this was exactly attributable to its psychotropic properties… Hera’s priestesses used asterion/cannabis as a way of conjoining with their Goddess in a state of entheos . The crops title, asterion, “little star,” means that it was thought to carry customers in touch with the astral realms, specifically with Hera’s side as a Goddess of the heavens. (Rigoglioso, 2009)

This similar star symbolism has been instructed within the cannabis leaf formed picture over the top of the Egyptian Goddess Seshat.

A Rope Ladder to the Heavens and the Goddess Seshat

Within the pyramid textual content of Unas, which appears to concern the king’s ascension into the heavens via the northern passageway of his pyramid, hemp ropes, right here underneath the title shemshemet or the SmSm.t-plant and this was the means for climbing into the starry sky.

There may be common settlement with the view of Dawson (1934a) that shemshemet means cannabis, and the identification was strongly supported by means of hempen rope making. As a drug, it has remained in energetic use since pharaonic occasions. It… was administered by mouth, rectum, vagina, bandaged the pores and skin, utilized to the eyes, and by fumigation. Nevertheless, these purposes present no clear proof of consciousness of the consequences of cannabis on the central nervous system. (Nunn, 2002)

Within the historical inscription, the devotee is commanded to say the next phrases in reward of Unas a celestial Bull, who’s the information of the lifeless to the heavens:

This Unas is the bull of double brilliance within the midst of his Eye. Protected is the mouth of Unas via the fiery breath, the top of Unas via the horns of the lord of the South. Unas leads the god…  Unas has twisted the SmSm.t-plant into ropes. Unas has united (zmA) the heavens…

Or as Budge interprets it: “He raises up the cords (fibres?) of the shemshemet plant, he unites the heavens” (Budge, 1911). An identical indication concerning hemp ropes could also be discovered within the mythology of the Goddess Seshat, who seems to be holding a rope and a stalk within the under depiction. Extra attention-grabbing is the picture that seems above the top of the traditional Goddess.

Indication concerning hemp ropes could also be discovered within the mythology of the Goddess Seshat, who seems to be holding a rope and a stalk within the under depiction. Extra attention-grabbing is the picture that seems above the top of the traditional Goddess.

Fig 2: Seshat holding rope to the heavens, cannabis stalk, with cannabis leaf above?

Numerous completely different researchers have famous the similarity between a cannabis leaf and the image hooked up to the top of the Goddess Seshat in Egyptian pictures. Seshat was the Egyptian Goddess of temple structure and mistress of scribes, presiding over the “Home of Life,” also referred to as the “Home of Books.” This temple was a kind of library and college of information, and served as a retailer place of texts concerning custom and rituals. Since very early Egyptian occasions, Seshat’s foremost perform was to help the king in “stretching the twine” for the format of temples and royal buildings, and on this one is reminded of the Ur depictions mentioned in Chapter 10.

Creator and researcher H. Peter Aleff has put forth an intriguing idea that this image is related to using hemp cords. “It was… in step with the traditional Egyptian visible canon that the artists who portrayed Seshat the rope-stretching goddess of measuring and geometry would have labeled her with  photos of her principal instruments, or with simply recognizable symbols for these. Certainly, they mixed evocations of those instruments ingeniously in her emblem”:


Many Egyptologists have lengthy speculated in regards to the emblem which Seshat wore as her head costume.Sir Alan Gardiner described it in his nonetheless category-leading “Egyptian Grammar” as a “conventionalized flower (?) surmounted by horns.” His query mark after “flower” displays the truth that there is no such thing as a probably flower which resembles this design.Others have known as it a “star surmounted by a bow,” however stars within the historical Egyptian conference had 5 factors, not seven just like the one in Seshat’s emblem.  This quantity was so vital that it triggered king Tuthmosis III (1479 to 1425 BCE) to present her the title Sefkhet-Abwy, or “She of the seven factors.”

There isn’t a want for such groping speculations as a result of the assorted parts in Seshat’s emblem merely depict the instruments of her geometer’s commerce within the hieroglyphic method.

Her seven-pointed “flower” or “star” is an correct picture of a hemp leaf.  This leaf is made up of seven pointed leaf elements which can be organized in the identical sample as probably the most outstanding sign up Seshat’s emblem.Hemp is, and has lengthy been, a wonderful materials for making ropes with the low-stretch high quality required for measuring cords, notably when these are greased to cut back variations of their moisture content material which might affect elongation.

The attribute leaf of the plant utilized in making these ropes was thus a logical alternative for the logo designer who wished an simply acknowledged reference to Seshat’s job.  This leaf is so distinctive that its image permits no confusion with different objects…. the hemp leaf in Seshat’s emblem is unmistakable proof that the traditional Egyptian rope- stretchers used hemp for his or her measuring cords, and that Seshat can not deny her now unlawful patronage and possession of this psycho-active plant.

Add to this flagrant proof that in Coffin Texts Spell 10, “Seshat opens the door of heaven for you” (7), and the case in opposition to her is stable sufficient to get her busted if she nonetheless plied her commerce in the present day. (Aleff, 1982/2008).

The Maat Plant

As famous in my e book Hashish and the Soma Resolution (2010), Egyptian use of cannabis could also be indicated in inscriptions concerning the Maat Plant, depicted within the decrease elements of the next stele being tended by devotees and eyed by a ready harvester with the standard Scythian hemp harvesting software the Scythe in hand. Usually this stele has been interpreted as figuring out the actions of the lifeless within the after-world, however usually such myths had been acted out by devotees on the fabric airplane, so indications of some kind of sacred ceremony involving earthly choices of the Maat Plant can’t be simply dismissed.

hooked up picture: Egyptian Stela with the Soma like Maat Plant

The Egyptians related the Maat plant with Osiris, as we see right here from the scenes and texts that are right here reproduced from the alabaster coffin of Seti I… Within the center register we see the depraved tied to the jackal headed requirements… Within the register under we see figures of males engaged in tending a plant… and one determine has a scythe, which signifies he was the reaper of the plant. Within the register above we some males carrying on their heads a loaf, and others a feather, symbolic of Maat, the goddess of Reality. The previous group of beings (Second Register) are the blessed whose ‘Kau (i.e. inclinations) have been washed clear,’ and who’ve been chosen by Osiris to dwell with him in the home of ‘holy souls’. The latter group of beings (Third Register) are the ‘labourers within the wheat subject of the Tuat’ (i.e. Different World), and the crops they tended and reaped are mentioned to be ‘the members of Osiris’. The plant was Osiris, and Osiris was the plant, and the blessed in consuming ‘the bread of everlastingness’ which was produced from the grain of the plant ate Osiris. However Osiris was Maat, i.e. Reality, due to this fact in consuming the bread they ate Reality. In consuming his physique they turned one with him and due to this fact everlasting… (Budge, 1925)

Curiously, Budge interpreted the plant picture within the decrease a part of the Egyptian stele, together with related depiction in Mesopotamian artwork (Chapter 10, Fig 16) as a “colossal ear of wheat.” Extra probably it represents another plant, one which was harvested with the Scythian software the Scythe, one which held divine properties and an affiliation with immortality in addition to rites for the lifeless. In relation to this depiction and the suggestion that the Maat plant was ready into some kind of sacramental loaf, the physique of the lord Osiris, you will need to notice that in Persia cannabis was additionally recognized by the title Sahdanag – Royal Grain; or King’s Grain, and was ready in numerous confections (Low, 1926).


Goddess Maat

Within the account of the Maat Plant and its affiliation with the lifeless, one is once more reminded of the function of cannabis in Scythian funerary rites, as does the Eucharistic parts involving it invoke the mythology of the Soma and Haoma, the unique Eucharistic sacrament. It also needs to be famous that Maat’s image was a inexperienced feather, and this symbolism has additionally been used to determine the Soma. “In RV X.89.5 the Soma known as simivat. Within the context it ought to be translated as feathered, actually it means ‘like simi or sami’… The pinnate leaves of the sami… seem like a feather…The feather in relation to the Soma-Plant is talked about in RV IV.27.4” (Richter-Ushanas, 1997). As Homer Smith famous in Man and his Gods:

“Those that lived by the legal guidelines of Maat took a sacramental drink, corresponding to the Hindus’ Soma or its Persian counterpart Haoma, which conferred ritual purity… Egyptian scribes writing within the third millenium B.C. wrote: “My inward elements have been washed within the liquor of Maat.” (Smith, 1952)

apparently historical wine amphora have been recovered in Egypt that contained proof of cannabis. it’s attention-grabbing to notice the nepenthe, a drug which the Egyptians had been mentioned to have used to ease the grieving of mourners for the lifeless. The Odyssey of Homer (Ninth-Eighth century BC) describes the Nepenthes which got here to the Greeks from Egyptian Thebes:

“Then Helen, daughter of Zeus… solid a drug into the wine whereof they drank, a drug to lull all ache and anger, and convey forgetfullness of each sorrow. Whoso ought to drink a draught thereof, when it’s mingled within the bowl, on that day he would let no tear fall down his cheeks, not although his mom and his father died, not although males slew his brother or expensive son with the sword earlier than his face, and his personal eyes beheld it. Medicines of such advantage and so useful had the daughter of Zeus, which Polydamna, the spouse of Thon, had given her, a lady of Egypt, the place earth the grain-giver yields herbs in biggest lots, many which can be therapeutic within the cup, and lots of baneful. There every man is a leech expert past all human form…”

The historian Diodorus Siculus, who lived within the 1st century B.C., famous that also in his time, greater than 7 centuries after the composition of Homer’s Iliad, “individuals say that the Egyptian ladies make use of the powder (of this plant, scil. the nepenthes) they usually say from historical occasions solely these ladies who lived within the ‘City-of-Zeus’ [i.e. Thebes, which was also known as Diospolis] had discovered medicines which remedy wrath and grief” (1, 97, 1-9; Eus. PE 10, 8, 9-12; cf. additionally Ps.Iustinus, Cohort. advert gent. 26e).

Quite a few students have famous on the id of nepenthe:“It’s usually assumed that the drug, which Helen is meant to have discovered in Egypt, was opium, however the results as described within the poem are way more like Hashish, which was additionally broadly employed in Egypt and all through the Close to East” (Ruck, et al., 2007).  An thought first put forth by the French Pharmacist Joseph Virey (1775—1846) who instructed in 1813 that hasheesh was Homer’s nepenthe (Bulletin de Pharmacie). Many others have since concurred: “The opinions entertained by the discovered, on the character of the Nepenthe of the ancients have been numerous. By Th. Zwinger, and… by Sprengel, in his historical past of botany, it’s alleged to be opium… However the most effective authorities, with whom our writer coincides, are of opinion that the Nepenthe was derived from the Hashish sativa of Linnaeus” (Christen, 1822); “the well-known nepenthe of the ancients is alleged to have been ready by decocting the hemp leaves” (Watt, 1853); “nepenthe which can moderately be surmised was bhang from the far east” (Benjamin, 1880). Because the authors of The Manners and Customs of the Historical Egyptians additionally concluded: “Nepenthes… Maybe the Bust or Hasheesh, a preparation of the Hashish sativa” (Wilkinson & Birch, 1878). See additionally (Walton, 1938; Burton, 1894; Lewin, 1931; Singer and Underwood, 1962; Oursler, 1968; Wills, 1998). It’s clearly the Nepenthe that Prof Richard Evans Schultes and Prof. Albert Hofmann are referring to after they wrote in a chapter on cannabis “In historical Thebes the plant was made right into a drink with opium like results” (Schultes & Hofmann, 1979).

In A Glossary of Colloquial Anglo-Indian Phrases and Phrases, Xmas and Crooke notice an attention-grabbing connection between a Coptic (Greek-Egyptian) time period and the nepenthe; “Bhang is normally derived from Skt. Bhanga, ‘breaking,’ however [Sir Richard] Burton derives each it and the Ar. Banj from the outdated Coptic Nibanj, ‘which means a preparation of hemp; and right here it’s straightforward to acknowledge the Homeric Nepenthe’” (Xmas, et al., 1903/1996). As Abram Smythe Palmer additionally notes in People-etymology: “Nepenthe, the drug which Helen introduced from Egypt, is doubtless the Coptic nibendj, which is the plural of bendj, or benj, hemp, ‘bang,’ used as an intoxicant” (Palmer, 1882). When one returns to the modern Avestan time period for cannabis, b’aŋ’ha, the similarity on this context, ne- b’aŋ’ha, brings us to a good nearer to the cognate pronunciation ‘nepenthe.’

One may also notice a similarity to the Indian time period ‘panga,’ which refers to a paste produced from pounded cannabis leaves blended with water (Watt, 1908). (It ought to be famous that by the point the pyramids had been constructed, there had already been giant cities in India’s Mohenjodaran-Harappan in India, [geographically close to Mesopotamia and Scythian southwest Asia], for some centuries). The Hebrew time period ‘pannag,’ which Dr. Raphael Mechoulam believes identifies a preparation of cannabis (Mechoulam, et al., 1991) can be related. Curiously, as nepenthe was a powder it’s notable that each of those phrases are believed to determine ready types of cannabis as nicely.

Because the Nepenthe was infused in wine, you will need to notice that historical Amphorae, clay wine vessels from an Egyptian web site, from the time interval in query, revealed proof of cannabis. Within the 2004 paper, Pollen evaluation of the contents of excavated vessels—direct archaeobotanical proof of drinks, Manfred Rosch refers to vessels collected from a web site in ˇSaruma/Al-Kom Al-Ahmar in Center Egypt on the Nile:

“At this place the Institute of Egyptology of the College of Tubingen is excavating a graveyard which was used from the sixth Dynasty till the Roman interval… Right here some wine amphorae had been excavated, from the underside of which we obtained samples of natural materials for pollen analytical investigations…. The helpful crops, Cerealia and Humulus/Hashish had been current.” (Rosch, 2004)

hooked up picture: Coptic wine amphora from ˇSaruma. Scale measurement 70 cm.. Damaged bottoms of Coptic amphorae from ˇSaruma, exhibiting black natural residues inside containing pollen. Scale measurement 20 cm. (Pictures: B. Huber)

Ashera and the Tree of Life

The traditional Canaanites and Hebrews paid explicit reverence to a Close to Japanese Goddess  recognized by the title Ashera, whose cult was notably centered across the cultic use of hemp.  In response to the Bible itself, the traditional worshippers of Ashera, and the Nice Goddess underneath her numerous manifestations, included smart Solomon and different Biblical kings in addition to their wives and the daughters of Jerusalem.

“There’s a traditional Greek time period, cannabeizen, which implies to smoke Hashish.  Cannabeizen steadily took the type of inhaling vapors from an incense burner wherein these resins had been blended with different resins, comparable to myrrh, balsam, frankincense, and perfumes; that is the style of the shamanistic Ashera priestesses of pre-reformation Jerusalem, who anointed their skins with the combination in addition to burned it.”(Emboden 1972)

                                                                                    

Icons devoted to her have depictions of a ‘sacred-tree’, or plant, most probably made as a visible reference to the hemp that her followers grew and revered, using it as an entheogen but additionally as a meals and oil supply, together with utilizing the fibers in ritual weavings. Sula Benet believed that it could have been right here amongst the worshippers of the goddess that the cultic use of cannabis might have originated: “Considering the matriarchal factor of Semetic tradition, one is led to consider that Asia Minor was the unique level of growth for each the society primarily based on the matriarchal circle and the mass use of cannabis.”(Benetowa,[Benet], 1936).

An historical ivory beauty casket lid from the 14th century web site of Minet al-Beida, depicts the goddess herself within the function of the Tree of life, providing two caprids, holding vegetation which clearly resembles buds of cannabis, however has been erroneously described as each ears of wheat or corn.  “This [depiction]appears to point lastly the reason of the Biblical references to the ‘asherah as a pure or stylized tree within the fertility cult.  This was the image of the mother-goddess, now recognized from the Ras Shamra texts as Ashera, the counterpart of Mesopotamian Ishtar, or Inanna….  The tree of life…known as the asherah within the Outdated Testomony. (Within the Licensed Model, it’s known as ‘the grove’.)”(Grey 1969).

The phrase that the Bible, with evident distaste, interprets ‘grove’ was not likely a grove in any respect, however an Asherah: the stylized multibranched tree symbolizing the Nice Goddess of Canaan….Asherah’s… tree image was alternately the ‘tree of information’ or ‘tree of life.’  In northern Babylon she was often called the Goddess of the Tree of Life, or the Divine Girl of Eden.(Walker 1988)   

Barbara Walker additional connects Ashera, with the traditional image for the tree of life, by noting that the Eagle headed figures proven within the Assyrian reliefs, are “within the act of fecundating sacred bushes, such because the goddess Asherah because the Tree of Life”(Walker 1988). (The identification of this explicit image is surrounded in scholarly controversy, and within the forthcomming Intercourse, Medicine, Violenence and the Bible, myself and co-author Niel McQueen add to this debate by figuring out as an ancint world image for cannabis)

Just like the tree of life, the tree of information was… an emblem related to the Goddess in earlier mythology…. Groves of sacred bushes had been an intergal a part of the outdated faith.  So had been rites designed to induce in worshippers a consciousness receptive to the revelation of divine or mystical truths–rites wherein ladies officiated as priestesses of the Goddess,(Eisler 1987).

In gentle of Ashera’s recognition as an emblem of the sacred tree and her cults use of cannabis(Emboden 1972), it’s of curiosity to notice that in medieval occasions, sure Moslem teams, referred to cannabis by the title ashirah, seen by them as an endearing time period for his or her hempen girlfriend, (Rosenthal 1971), a practice probably carried on from the sooner affiliation of the traditional goddess and the Tree of Life, within the type of cannabis hemp.  (That using the phrase on this context, will be correlated to the traditional world utilization, could be very possible, because the Moslem language developed out of pre-existing Arabic dialects, and numbers of historical phrases are nonetheless current its vocabulary, a high-quality instance is the extra generally used title for cannabis qunubu).

Within the Patriarchal Hebrew view, that got here to dominate a lot of the spiritual world, we are able to see from Jeremiah 44 within the Outdated Testomony that each incense and drink choices, probably entheogenic, performed a giant function with the Goddess worship that competed a lot with the worship of Yahweh, and right here in Jeremiah we see the sacred kaneh bosm, related to cannabis, that was utilized in earlier occasions, demonized… “What do I care about incense from Sheba or good candy smelling cane  [kaneh -cannabis] from a distant land?   Your burnt choices are usually not acceptable; your sacrifices don’t please me” (Jeremiah 6:20).

The ties between cannabis and the Queen of Heaven are in all probability most obvious in Jeremiah 44, the place the traditional patriarch appears to be involved by the individuals’s persevering with worship of the Queen of Heaven, particularly by the burning of incense in her honour, and pouring out drink choices:

That is what the Lord Almighty, the God of Israel says: “You noticed the nice catastrophe I introduced on Jerusalem and on all of the cities of Judah.  Immediately they lie abandoned and in ruins due to the evil they’ve accomplished.  They provoked me to anger by burning incense and by worshipping different gods… Time and again I despatched my servants the prophets, who mentioned, ‘Don’t do the detestable issues I hate!’  However they didn’t pay attention or listen; they didn’t flip from their wickedness or cease burning incense to different gods.  Due to this fact my fierce anger was poured out; it raged in opposition to the cities of Judah and the streets of Jerusalem and made them the desolate ruins they’re in the present day.”

….Then all the boys which knew that their wives had burned incense unto different gods, and all the ladies that stood by, an incredible multitude, even all of the people who dwelt within the land of Egypt, in Pathros, answered Jeremiah, saying, “As for the phrase that thou hast spoken unto us within the title of the Lord, we won’t hearken unto thee. However we will definitely do by any means factor goeth forth out of our personal mouth, to burn incense unto the queen of heaven, and to pour drink choices unto her, as we now have accomplished, we, and our fathers, our kings, and our princes, within the metropolis of Judah, and within the streets of Jerusalem: for then we had loads of victuals, and had been nicely, and noticed no evil.  However since we left off to burn incense to the queen of heaven, and poured out drink choices to her, we now have wished all issues, and have been consumed by sword and by famine.”

The ladies added “Once we burned incense to the queen of heaven, and poured out drink choices unto her, did we make her truffles to worship her, and pour our drink choices to her, with out our males?”

  Then Jeremiah mentioned unto all of the individuals, to the boys, and to the ladies, and to all of the individuals which had given him that reply saying, The incense that ye burned within the cities of Judah, and within the streets of Jerusalem, ye, and your fathers, your kings, and your princes, and the individuals of the land, didn’t the Lord bear in mind them, and got here it not into his thoughts?  In order that the Lord may not bear, due to the evil of your doings, and due to the abominations which ye have dedicated; due to this fact is your land a desolation, and astonishment, and a curse, with out an inhabitant, as at today.  As a result of ye have burned incense and since ye have sinned in opposition to the Lord, and haven’t obeyed the voice of the Lord, not walked in his legislation, nor in his statutes, not in his testimonies;  due to this fact this evil has occurred to you, as at today. (Jeremiah 44:1-23)

Jeremiah’s reference to the earlier kings and princes that burned incense and poured out drink choices to the Queen of Heaven will be seen as referring to King Solomon, and the overwhelming majority of different Biblical kings as much as that point, who worshipped the Goddess alongside Jehovah and different deities in a polytheistic pantheon that was the norm for the time and place.

Ashera has been related with the origins of different Close to Japanese Goddesses comparable to Ishtar and Ishara, and these Mom Goddesses have likewise been related with cannabis as nicely.Referring to the difficulties in deciphering plant identification from the obscure and lengthy forgotten names discovered within the historical texts, revered Assyriologist Erica Reiner reveals an attention-grabbing reference to the traditional world Goddess and “qunnabu”  a time period recognized with cannabis, that few different Assyriologists have famous:

“Typically the etymology of the title is clear, Whereas ‘sunflower’ (u.UTU sammi samas) in all probability describes any heliotrope, that may be a flower that at all times seems on the solar: ‘the flower of Samas that faces the setting solar,’ different names composed with the title of a god or goddess are extra suggestive. We have no idea to what botanical species for instance the herb known as ‘Ninurta’s fragrant’ (Summerian sim. Ninurta, equated in Akkadian with nikiptu) refers, each styles of which, masculine and female, are talked about in recipes; nonetheless, the title of the herb known as Sim.Ishara’armoatic of the Goddess Ishtar,’ which is equated with the Akkadian qunnabu, ‘cannabis’, might certainly conjure up an aphrodisiac via the affiliation with Ishara, goddess of affection, and in addition calls to thoughts the plant known as ki.na Istar.” (Reiner, 1995)

It is a helpful piece of data when making an attempt to grasp the ritual practices and beliefs of historical Mesopotamia, particularly concerning the significantly widespread worship of Goddesses comparable to Ishtar, Ishara, Ninurta. Curiously few Assyriologists talk about the qunubu references within the historical cuneiform tablets, and after they do, it’s normally simply in a passing reference, comparable to Reiner’s quotation above. Till severe analysis is finished explaining such passages within the context of the traditional paperwork wherein they initially seem, their full implications won’t be understood.

“…[T]he multifaceted goddess Ishara. She doesn’t look like a local Mesopotamian deity, however was worshipped by many individuals all through the traditional Close to East, which has led to a complicated array of attributions – she is called an incredible goddess to the Hurrians, the spouse of Dagon among the many West Semites, and to the Akkadians she was a goddess of affection with shut affinities to Istar, whose sacred plant cannabis (qunnabu) was often called the fragrant of Ishara… from her widespread worship she is also referred to as the queen of the inhabited world.” (White, 2008)

This affiliation was probably widespread and significantly historical, as the continual worship of the Goddess, underneath quite a lot of evolving and associated names, and pictures, will be traced again far into the Stone Age. “The worship… of the ‘Syrian Goddess,’ be she Astarte, or recognized by no matter different title… was stuffed with… rites, wherein the consequences on the thoughts may solely have been produced by narcotic stimulants” (Brown, 1868).

Ishara being provided crops…..

Within the case of Ishara, she is assumed to have been Indo European in origin, and though using cannabis in patriarchal cults comparable to Zoroastrianism has lengthy been recognized, even this cultic use is assumed to have originated with Goddess worship.

In Irans forntida religioner (Leipzig, 1938) Henrik Nyberg famous {that a}very attention-grabbing listing of demons exists…It contains the next feminine demons: Budhi with the parallel type Budhiza, Kundi with the parallel type Kundiza and at last the outdated goddess of ecstasy Busyansta, ‘issues to come back’, the demon of somnolence in Zoroastrianism” (Nyberg, 1938). Apparently these deities had been vital figures within the early use of cannabis, and should give us some insights into the extra historical pre-Zoroastrian cultic use of cannabis amongst the Aryans:

In Budhiza, true Budhiza, and Kundiza, true Kundiza, one can once more recognise the phrase ‘iza’, which serves as a synonym for Armaiti, the godly tribe, in oldest Zoroastrianism; Budhiza due to this fact really means ‘tribe and cult congregation of the goddess Budhi’ and Kundiza ‘tribe and cult congregation of the goddess Kundi’.

Alongside the goddess Kundi there may be additionally a masculine Kunda, who for sure is now a demon. Vend. 19,41 offers with him as follows “the Sraosa accompanied by Asi want to slay the demon Kunda, the one with the hemp, in order that he not has hemp.” Kunda and certainly additionally Kundi had been due to this fact very carefully linked with the outdated ecstatic substance of hemp, which was used since historical occasions by the Aryans within the North and East. Kundiza was a physique or guild of ecstatics, who reached the ecstatic state via narcotization with hemp. If, as I consider, the Median city Kunduru, talked about within the Behistun Inscription and written Kuntarrus = Kundaru within the Elamite model, is linked with this pair of gods, then it will need to have been an outdated West Iranian cannabis nest….

The goddess Busyansta might be thought to be the widespread oracle deity of the West, which views oracle as a divine power. As she represents the demon of somnolence, then we should assume that she started to perform in trance. She [the goddess Busyansta]receives the epithet ‘zairina’, that for my part shouldn’t be translated as ‘exhausting, flagging’ fairly ‘golden’; that’s an epithet in the identical model as Zairica. It alludes presumably to the ingested ecstasy potion. Perhaps it was hemp extract in wine,… (Nyberg, 1938)

Science meets Faith? 

Clearly cannabis has lengthy held a relationship with the divine female, however apparently, their appears to be some kind of biologicial connection as nicely. “The energetic compounds of marijuana have some molecular resemblance to sure feminine hormones (estrogens)”(Weil 1980). That is attention-grabbing contemplating what we now know in regards to the human endocannabinoids system and should as Jack Herer famous, point out some kind of symbiotic pre cultural relationship with cannabis.

New United States authorities funded research at St. Louis Medical College in 1989 and the Nationwide Institute of Psychological Well being in 1990, moved cannabis analysis into a brand new realm by confirming that the human mind has receptor websites for THC and its pure cannabis cousins to which no different recognized compounds to date will bind…. On the molecular stage THC matches into receptor websites within the higher mind that appear to be uniquely designed to accommodate THC.  This factors to an historical symbiosis between the plant and folks….  Maybe these neuronal pathways are the product of a pre-cultural relationship between man and cannabis. (Herer 1995).

These curious organic connections between man and marijuana proceed: the hemp seed comprises probably the most full protein within the vegetable world, and is the best supply of important fatty acids.  Apart from being accountable for the luster of hair, pores and skin, eyes, lubricating arteries, and even the thought course of, the “important oils help the immune system and guard in opposition to viral and different insults to the immune system”(Eidlman, M.D., & Hamilton Eh.D., Ph.D.) The globulin edistin discovered within the seeds protein carefully resemble these present in human plasma, (Osburn 1993, Herer 1995, Robinson 1996). Much more attention-grabbing is that cannabis seeds include uncommon gamma linoleic acid, discovered solely in spirulina, two different uncommon seed oils, and human mom’s milk, which additionally comprises naturally occurring endocannabinoids. “In response to the findings of a number of main scientific research, human breast milk naturally comprises of the identical cannabinoids discovered within the cannabis plant, that are very important for correct human improvement.”

Terrence McKenna has additionally pointed too the female qualities of this most holy herb;

“Outpourings of fashion and esthetically managed private show are normally anathema to the nuts-and-bolts mentality of dominator cultures. In dominator cultures with none dwelling traditions of use of crops that dissolve social conditioning, such shows are normally felt to be the prerogative of girls. Males who give attention to such considerations are sometimes assumed to be gay–that’s, they don’t seem to be following the accepted canons of male habits throughout the dominator mannequin. The longer hair lengths for males seen with the rise of marijuana use within the united States within the 1960’s had been a textbook case of an inflow of apparently female values accompanying using a boundary-dissolving plant. The hysterical response to such a minor adjustment in folkways revealed the insecurity and sense of hazard felt by the male ego within the presence of any issue that may have a tendency to revive the significance of a partnership in human affairs.

On this context it’s attention-grabbing to notice that cannabis happens in each female and male type…..propagation of the feminine species…is the whole concern of the grower within the narcotic energy of the plant. It’s thus a type of blissful coincidence that the subjective results of cannabis and the care and a focus wanted to provide a very good resin pressure each conspire to intensify values which can be oriented towards honoring and preserving the female.

…..Due to its subliminally psychedelic impact, cannabis when pursued as a life-style, locations an individual in intuitive contact with much less aggressive habits patterns. For these causes marijuana is unwelcome within the trendy workplace surroundings, whereas a drug comparable to espresso, which reinforces the values of commercial tradition, is each welcomed and inspired. Hashish use is appropriately sensed as heretical and deeply disloyal to the values of male dominance and stratified hierarchy.’ (McKenna, 1992)

On this Age, when ladies have been liberated and their energy will be celebrated, to see the outstanding function they’ve performed in bringing again is one other testomony to the divine relationship shared by queens of each the plant and human world. Furthermore, simply has the prohibition of cannabis been a criminal offense in opposition to humanity and thru a lack of entry to hemp, even a risk to the world we dwell in, so has the suppression of the divine female been a criminal offense in opposition to all ladies, who’ve been handled as second class residents via the identical oppressive patriarchal religions which have suppressed the Goddess and her sacred crops, the Messengers of Gaia, who’ve returned now in our personal time, to as soon as once more lead us again to the Backyard of Mom Nature and off of this Freeway to Hell we now have been pressured to journey.



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